Oleh: hurahura | 18 Agustus 2011

Misteri Topeng Hijau Goa Made

Koran Tempo, Kamis, 18 Agustus 2011 – Apakah komputer sudah dikenal pada masa Kerajaan Majapahit? Claudio Giardino sempat terdiam mendapat pertanyaan tersebut. “Saya tidak berpikir ke arah itu,“ kata ahli arkeologi Uni versity of Arkansas-Rome Centre, Italia–itu.

Pertanyaan itu muncul karena topeng perunggu artefak yang ditemukan di Gua Made, Kabupaten Jombang, materinya campuran antara tanah liat (keramik) dan logam (metal).

Bahan ini lazim dikenal dengan cermet (ceramic-metal) yang saat ini dipakai membuat cip komputer. Analisis kimiawi itu dilakukan Laboratorium Arkeologi Eksperimental Giuseppe Pulitani di Colonna, Roma.

Kamis pekan lalu, di Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Dr Claudio Giardino dan Profesor Dr Agus Aris Munandar memberikan kuliah umum tentang situs Gua Made. Penelitian tentang gua–yang letaknya dekat dengan pusat ibu kota Majapahit–ini telah dilakukan sejak 2006 oleh ilmuwan Indonesia dan Italia.

Pada Mei lalu, Laboratorium Metal di Milano melansir temuannya bahwa artefak Gua Made tersebut berumur 3.000 tahun sebelum Masehi. Jika benar, hasil ini mencengangkan karena Jombang bakal mengubah peta peradaban dunia. Kota kelahiran Abdurrahman Wahid dan Nurcholish Madjid ini bisa dianggap tempat penyebaran manusia ke Asia Tenggara dan Austronesia, bukannya Yunan di Cina selatan.

Temuan tersebut menjadi bahan diskusi ilmuwan internasional di Departemen Arkeologi Universi tas Bologna, Italia. Dari Indone sia hadir arkeolog UI, antara lain Agus Aris Munandar dan Wanny Rahardjo. “Ternyata hasil lab Milano keliru,“ katanya.

Menurutnya, para ilmuwan belum bisa memastikan periode topeng perunggu tersebut dibuat. Bisa pada era sebelum Masehi hingga abad ke-10 sampai 14 di masa Kerajaan Majapahit. Untuk mengetahui kronologinya, mereka masih menunggu uji thermoluminisence di Universitas Oxford.

Pada penggalian tahun 2006 dan 2007 Goa Made, di Desa Made, Kecamatan Kudu, memang ditemukan sejumlah artefak. Ada 100 topeng dengan berbagai rupa, patung perempuan menyusui, patung hewan seperti gajah, babi hutan, gerobak, dan kapal. Temuan yang paling menarik jelas topeng perunggu yang sebagian berwarna hijau karena menunjukkan peran penting wilayah ini pada zaman dulu.

Giardino menyebut pada zamannya material cermet merupakan satu-satunya di dunia. Bukan apa-apa, kebanyakan temuan topeng di situs arkeologi terbuat dari emas dan kayu. “Ini rediscovery.” Dari segi teknologi pembuatan, katanya, sederhana. Mereka membuat cetakan sehingga sejumlah topeng bentuknya sama.

Adonannya berasal dari tanah liat dicampur dengan bubuk metal. Bahan tanah diambil dari persawahan di Jombang yang terkenal subur. Masalahnya, dari mana asal logam tersebut. Agus Munandar menduga dari koin-koin Kekaisaran Cina yang ditumbuk halus.

Para ahli yang hadir di Universitas Bologna menyimpulkan topeng tersebut diperkirakan berasal dari abad ke-10 sampai ke-14 Masehi. Agus menjelaskan topeng itu ada kaitannya dengan situs Kerajaan Majapahit di Trowulan. Maklum, bata yang membangun Goa made ukurannya sama dengan bata di Trowulan.


Dari cerita warga Desa Made, goa tersebut merupakan tempat mengungsi pejabat Majapahit ketika kerajaan ini mulai runtuh. Untuk mengamankan barang-barang penting mereka menanamnya di Goa Made.

Masalahnya, topeng perunggu tersebut tidak ditemukan di Trowulan yang menjadi ibu kota Majapahit. “Kalau usianya lebih tua lagi, jelas bukan bagian dari Kerajaan Majapahit,” kata Agus. Para ahli arkeologi kini menunggu hasil laboratorium Universitas Oxford. [UNTUNG WIDYANTO]


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